Sheilagh Hodgins Modifier son profil
Troubles mentaux et facteurs biologiques, psychologiques et sociaux
- Professeure associée
Faculté de médecine - Département de psychiatrie et d’addictologie
Expertise de recherche
Les interactions des facteurs biologiques, psychologiques et sociaux au cours de la vie qui influencent le développement des troubles mentaux, les comportements antisociaux et criminels.
Présentement, mes études portent sur le développement des comportements antisociaux à travers la vie. Nous tentons de comprendre comment les facteurs génétiques et environnementaux interagissent pour promouvoir ces comportements et aussi pour les prévenir. Pour ce faire j’étudie des cohortes d’individus qui ont été suivi dès leur entrée à l’école jusqu’à 33 ans, des cohortes d’adolescents, des individus qui à l’adolescence ont été traité pour les problèmes de toxicomanie, et les criminels. Nous examinons les facteurs sociaux, les facteurs individuels tel la personnalité, les troubles mentaux, la performance académique, etc., la famille, ainsi que les anomalies cérébrales identifiés par l’imagerie, ainsi que les gènes. Le but est de mettre en évidence les mécanismes qui sous-tendent des patterns de comportements antisociaux et de contribuer au développement de traitements et de programmes de prévention.
De plus, je travaille sur un projet qui suit les enfants de parents ayant le trouble bipolaire.
I completed an MSc and Ph.D. programmme that combined training in both experimental and clinical psychology at McGill University studying with Professor Donald Hebb in my first years. My thesis research focussed on psychopathy. After graduating, I was appointed to the faculty at the Université de Montréal where I remained for almost 25 years. During this period, I established and directed a research centre in the only forensic hospital in Québec and spent time in Sweden working on longitudinal projects.
My early work focused on violence that did not lead to criminal prosecution. I subsequently began investigating violence among persons with mental illness. In the mid-1980s, as the large psychiatric asylums were being closed and community treatment of the mentally ill became policy, the public perception that the mentally ill were dangerous persisted. Yet, there were no empirical data to address the question. I recognized the need for epidemiological investigations comparing the criminality of the mentally ill with that of the general population. I studied a Swedish population cohort and published the first epidemiological investigation to demonstrate an increased risk of criminal violence among the mentally ill. This cohort included 15,000 individuals followed to age 30. Because the results were so startling at the time, I replicated them by establishing another population cohort of 358,000 individuals in Denmark followed to their mid 40’s. Since these investigations have been published, many others have subsequently confirmed the results. To address the hypothesised vulnerability of persons with mental illness to commit homicide, it was necessary to have access to data on complete cohorts of homicide offenders within a defined geographic area for a specified period of time. These requirements were all met in the state of Hessen in Germany, and the increased risk for persons with schizophrenia to kill was demonstrated. The study was designed, however, to also identify factors, such as inadequate mental health care, that contribute to these tragedies. I also undertook epidemiological investigations that demonstrated high rates of mental illness among convicted offenders and high rates of violent criminality among the mentally ill living in the community.
My subsequent research has, I believe, contributed to advancing knowledge about antisocial and violent behaviours by persons with mental illness, the causes and the effective treatments. My success derives from placing research on antisocial and violent behaviour of the mentally ill firmly within two highly productive areas of scientific inquiry, one on mental illness and the other on antisocial and violent behaviours. Using knowledge from these fields on the ways in which biological, psychological and social factors interact to determine behaviours, cognitions, and emotions, I developed novel hypotheses and tested these hypotheses using a diversity of methodologies. I established international collaborations to take advantage of natural experiments and to access to data not available elsewhere.
In the last 15 years I have focused more on the development of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and antisocial behaviour more generally. I have conducted epidemiological investigations of large cohorts of antisocial adolescents tracked through four decades in order to understand the multiple negative outcomes that they experience in adult life. I have been conducting brain imaging studies to understand the neural anomalies that characterize children, adolescents, and adults engaging in antisocial behaviour and violent criminality. I have also been conducting studies to understand how specific genetic polymorphisms interact with environmental factors to promote or prevent the development of various types of antisocial behaviour. The results of these studies are used to further understanding of the aetiology of these disorders and as well to inform treatment and prevention programs.
I initiated a prospective longitudinal investigation to compare the development of children of parents with bipolar disorder to that of children of parents with no mental disorder. The development of the children at high risk for bipolar disorder is proving to be very different from that of the children at risk for schizophrenia that we are currently studying. They differ in many ways including conduct problems. These prospective investigations are providing novel findings about the aetiology of these two severe mental illnesses, about the sub-groups of these patients who engage in antisocial behaviours, and about possible avenues of prevention.
Prix et distinctions
2009 : Fellow, Royal Society of Canada, Canada
2009 : Wolfson Research Merit Award, Royal Society, United Kingdom
1996 : Fellow, Canadian Psychological Association, Canada
- 1976 — Doctorat, psychologie clinique — Psychologie — Université McGill
- 1976 — Maîtrise (équivalent), psychologie clinique — Psychologie — Université McGill
- 1971 — Maîtrise, études canadiennes — Histoire, Science politique, Sociologie — Carleton University
- 1976 — Ph.D. (Psych clin) — Psychologie — Université McGill
Pour en savoir plus…
- Use Of Antipsychotic Medication Linked To Reduced Rate Of Violent Crime, Forbes Sheilagh Hodgins appuie les résultats d'une étude qui démontre que l'utilisation de médicaments antipsychotiques diminue le taux de crime violent. Publications are posted on Research Gate and PubMed.
Affiliations et responsabilités
Affiliations de recherche
Unités de recherche
- Centre de recherche de l'Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal
- CRIUSMM — Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal
- Centre de recherche Maria-Ungdom, Karolinska Institutet
- Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal (IPP)
Enseignement et encadrement
Thèses et mémoires dirigés (dépôt institutionnel Papyrus)
Le rôle des troubles mentaux à l'enfance et à l'adolescence dans le développement et l'évolution du trouble bipolaire
Cycle : Doctorat
Diplôme obtenu : Ph. D.
Cycle : Maîtrise
Diplôme obtenu : M. Sc.
The development and validity of a functional assessment instrument for persons with major mental disorders
Cycle : Doctorat
Diplôme obtenu : Ph. D.
Cycle : Maîtrise
Diplôme obtenu : M. Sc.
Projets de recherche
ANTECEDENTS OF PERSISTENT ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOUR AND PSYCHOPATHY: A DEVELOPMENTAL FOLLOW-BACK STUDY OF CANADIAN MEN USING PROSPECTIVELY COLLECTED DATA FROM AGE 6 TO 30
THE LIFETIME COSTS OF CRIMINAL OFFENDERS : A CANADIAN STUDY OF A SAMPLE OF MALES FOLLOWED FROM AGE 6 TO 30
The Lifetime Costs of Criminal Offending: A Canadian Study of a Sample of Males followed from age 6 to 30
The present application requests funds to provide evidence from Canada of the costs of offenders in an effort to contribute to the discussion about how best to reduce crime. While there are a few studies of the costs of offenders in the US and in the UK, such evidence is currently lacking in Canada. Further, evidence is needed of the costs of different types of offenders – life-course persistent, adolescent-limited, and adult-start offenders, about the nature of the costs that they impose on Canadian society, and about the age period when the costs occur – childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Such detailed cost estimates would contribute to the on-going discussion about investing in early childhood programs rather than, or in addition to, criminal justice programs.
LCP offenders, while few in number, are responsible for most of the violent crimes that are committed. These individuals are distinguished by individual factors, principally persistent conduct problems and aggressive behaviour from a very young age, and family factors, principally parents engaging in criminal and/or antisocial behaviours who provide non-optimal parenting. These individuals present more physical and mental health problems across the life-span than other offenders and spend less time employed. Some individual and family factors also distinguish adolescent-limited offenders.
While presently we wait until adolescence to intervene, usually by incarcerating offenders, there is now robust evidence suggesting that interventions in childhood that reduce conduct problems and improve parenting might limit subsequent criminal activity, improve academic performance, and increase pro-social skills. Therefore, information about the costs of criminal offending over the life-span would be a useful contribution to the debate on crime reduction strategies.
The study uses data collected on a sample of 2631 males from Quebec who have been followed from age 6 to age 30. By age 24, official records indicated that 376 of these men had at least one conviction for a criminal offence in adult court and another 204 had convictions in juvenile but not in adult court. Criminal files will be up-dated to age 30.
The proposed study aims to compare costs of offenders and non-offenders from the perspectives of both the government (all publicly-borne health care, education and criminal justice costs, including any additional costs that victims incur, government revenues and outlays, including taxes, unemployment insurance, disability benefits) and society (publicly borne and private costs of health care, education and criminal justice costs, labour force participation, and all costs associated with criminal activity, including intangible costs – pain and suffering). Costs will be estimated for the lifespan, and for age periods, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Additionally, estimates will be made for life course persistent, adolescent-limited, and adult-start offenders. Family and individual factors associated with costs will be identified.
The study will provide estimates of the costs of processing and incarcerating offenders and providing care for their victims, but also the costs the offenders incurred in the health, social service, and education systems from birth onwards. The results will make a useful contribution to debate and decisions about crime reduction and prevention for both policy makers and the general public. The proposed study will fill a void as few data are available in Canada on the costs of criminal offending. Further, the estimates will be sufficiently detailed to be used in making decisions about how to reduce the costs.
Antecedents of persistent antisocial behaviour and psychopathy: A developmental follow-back study of Canadian men using prospectively collected data from age 6 to 30
Approximately 5% of males display antisocial and aggressive behaviour that emerges in childhood and remains stable throughout life. They commit more than 50% of all violent crimes. In addition, they assault others, participate in the illegal drug trade, do not work or pay taxes. The first goal of the proposed project is to estimate the burden this small group of males places on Canadian society in order to inform policy decisions regarding investment in child and family focused prevention programmes. The second goal is to identify distinctive sub-types within the population of males who display stable antisocial behaviour. These sub-types, we propose, differ as to the traits of psychopathy and symptoms of anxiety. This evidence is needed in order to investigate the mechanisms that initiate and maintain antisocial behaviour and to develop childhood intervention programmes that are tailored to the needs of different sub-types of boys presenting antisocial behaviour. There is presently no effective treatment for persistent antisocial behaviour. Interventions in childhood present the greatest potential for success. The present project will provide evidence about the treatment needs at different ages of each sub-type of males who engage in persistent antisocial behaviour. To achieve these goals, the proposed project will examine 2631 men, aged 30-33, who have been participating in a study since they were 6 years old. We will collect official records to identify all those who have a criminal conviction (~376) and a random sample of 350 with no record of criminality. We will interview these 726 men in order to assess mental health, psychosocial functioning, and aggressive behaviour, and collect their health files. This new information will be combined with parent, teacher, and self-reports of behaviour, symptoms, and parenting, and official reports of maltreatment, delinquency and social service interventions collected since age 6.
Publications et communications
- Problèmes de comportement
- Santé mentale et psychopathologie des enfants et des adolescents
- Santé mentale et société
- Troubles de comportement chez l’enfant et l’adolescent